The engine start system, as the name implies, is designed to start the car engine. The system ensures that the engine rotates at the speed at which it starts.
On modern cars, the most widely used starter launch system. The engine starting system is part of the electrical equipment of the car . The system is powered by direct current from the battery .
The starting system includes a starter with a traction relay and a drive mechanism, an ignition switch and a set of connecting wires.
The starter creates the necessary torque to rotate the engine crankshaft . It is a direct current electric motor. Structurally, the starter consists of a stator (housing), a rotor (anchor), brushes with a brush holder, a traction relay and a drive mechanism.
The traction relay provides power to the starter windings and the operation of the drive mechanism. To perform its functions, the traction relay has a winding, an armature and a contact plate. External connection to the traction relay is via contact bolts.
The drive mechanism is designed to mechanically transmit torque from the starter to the engine crankshaft. The structural elements of the mechanism are: a drive lever (fork) with a drive clutch and a damper spring, a freewheel (overrunning clutch), pinion gear. The transmission of torque is carried out by engaging the pinion gear with the ring gear of the crankshaft flywheel.
The ignition switch, when turned on, provides DC power from the battery to the starter traction relay.
The launch system, installed on gasoline and diesel engines, has a similar design. To facilitate the start of diesel engines in cold weather, the start system can be equipped with glow plugs that heat the air in the intake manifold. For the same purpose, pre-heating systems are used on cars .
Further development of the engine start system are: automatically starting the engine, intelligent access to the car and starting the engine without a key, Stop-Start system .
The launch system is as follows. When the key is turned in the ignition switch, the current from the battery is supplied to the contacts of the traction relay. When current flows through the windings of the traction relay, the armature retracts. The traction relay anchor moves the lever of the drive mechanism and engages the pinion gear with the flywheel ring gear.
When moving, the armature also closes the relay contacts, at which the current supply to the stator and armature windings occurs. The starter starts to spin and spins the crankshaft of the engine.
As soon as the engine starts, the crankshaft rises sharply. To prevent the breakdown of the starter, an overrunning clutch is activated, which disconnects the starter from the engine. In this case, the starter can continue to rotate.
When you turn the key in the ignition, the starter stops. The traction relay return spring moves the armature, which in turn returns the drive mechanism to its original position.
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